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Gradient Revolution Active

Article type: REVIEW

Category: Speaker with active crossover

wrote: Daniel Modric

 

PERFECT imperfections

 

 

"Gradient speakers will lead the orchestra in your room. They will take you directly into a concert hall. "- Jorma Salmi, Director of Research and Development and founder of Gradient manufacture.

 

My great friend, also an audiophile with immensely rich experiences, some five years ago told me about Revolution speakers from Finnish company Gradient. Excellent knowing my musical preferences and attitudes audiophile, practically insisted, but also allowed me to listen to their own terms and definitely unusual speakers. So in the spring of 2005 on these pages created their review (LINK). And today, after a five-year time lag, when it re-read, I stand behind every written word. Indeed, after this test and reviews, enthusiastic performance, I decided to purchase them.

Then I get information from local vendors that I was patient because in the tenth month of the same year, Revolution comes out with its latest version. In the meantime I changed the room that houses the audio system. From the room of some 18 square meters (partially visible in the figure mentioned reviews Gradient Revolution Speaker; the one with the ancient TV - still know audiophile priorities!), The system was moved to something larger room - the living room of approx. 25 square meters, theoretically lot better acoustic potential. My former system consisted of a CD player Gamut CD1 MkII, Primare A30.1 integrated amplifier, Jamo Concert 8 speakers, and cables from the then current Sumic Audio offers. However, after moving it happened unpleasant surprise. The sound of that same system has drastically changed in the new environment and that, unfortunately, in the negative direction. He became too-lasting, lost focus and definition, and tonal balance has become almost irritating (too) bright. Sound files are also weakened, losing its precise and natural contours. In anticipation of the new gradient and I experimented with changes in components in the system, seeking an answer to such a drastic degradation of the system that is in another room excel, diametrically opposed to me very recognizable sound performance. First, the Jamo Concert 8 speakers trial offset less-standing boxes from Dynaudio Audience 62 offers, and later I tried the gamut combination of preamplifier and power amplifier D3 D200 MkIII instead otherwise excellent Primare A30.1 (later I30) the integrated. There were no short-term attempts with other components, but the magic of the sound from the smaller, 18-square rooms more I failed again. As aggravating circumstances for the system I have to mention the impossibility of removing the speakers more than 0.5 meters from the rear wall (that's why I specifically tested the smaller Dynaudio freestanding model, something short response in the bass and the bass-refleknim hole on the front panel) with a very small room for maneuver shifts in positioning, as well as the presence of the piano in the living room whose reasoning, especially in certain parts of the frequency spectrum, was quite audibly. This experience reaffirmed unquestioned and decisive influence on room acoustics performance audio system. Not only that same system in different rooms does not sound the same, but these differences can be so dramatic as that is not about exactly the same device but in a different acoustic environment.

 

GRADIENT REVOLUTION NEW

When I as a result of not getting the desired results already lost more serious will to further experimentation, finally cheered me up information about arrival of my new Gradient Revolution Speaker. Since this was new and the improved version (which is still current) in relation to the test pair, I should mention this small but (by sound) very important changes. Naoko is identical coaxial speaker unit in the center of which is 25-mm tweeter with aluminum dome which is now surrounded by a 176-mm midrange Glass fiber cone which controls the dispersion of frequencies to frequencies above 2800 Hz (cutting frequency between midrange and tweeter), which is exactly 6 millimeters larger in diameter than the previous version of the speaker (170 mm). She continues to Gradient products known Norwegian company specializing Seas, and is installed in a separate particular shaped cabinet looks sort of triangular truncated pyramid with no parallel sides, which is placed on top of the open-baffle bass sections. Such a point source of sound, located on the oblique plate due to the time alignment with bass units, and his cabinet that the remaining two side surfaces and the truncated pyramid has three precisely calculated vertical slits (analog bass-reflex openings this could be called a sort of "mid-reflex "openings), whose function is to neutralize the acoustic and attenuate any radiation midrange unit except frontal and therefore will very intense first reflection from the lower-mid frequency areas be significantly suppressed, which provides highly-focused and controlled sound dispersion kardoidnog forms devoid of the usual coloration of the cabinet, almost completely independent of the characteristics of spatial acoustics. Rear waves are so attenuated by 20 dB or effectively canceled in the ratio of 100: 1st And that is one reason why accommodation near obstacles for Revolution is not a serious problem.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure2 - Midrange and treble cabinet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3 Under neath surface of midrange-treble cabinet which is placed on top of the bass section.

The connector connects the two parts of the speaker.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4 - Turnable dipole bass section with two Peerless SLS12 bass drivers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 5 - Chassies connector for cable from the coaxial Seas midrange and treble unit on the upper surface of the bass section.

 

Peerless bass units are also new, two of them are used in dipole configuration. Therefore, the radiation pattern has the shape of the number 8, usually encountered in panel loudspeakers. The front and rear sound waves are in anti phase, and there is very little output on the sides. Because of the controlled dispersion and frequency range up to 200 Hz (at that the frequency is cut between the tweeter / midrange and bass), the possibility of standing waves occurs only in the direction of the frontal radiation (as opposed to the speakers whose bass units located in cabinet and whose radiation is practically omnipolarno), but they can be annulled in the sweet-spot by proper placement and set-up mics speakers. The recommendation is to rule with an equilateral triangle, speaker distance from the rear wall is equal to the distance from your listening from its rear wall as it will be in this area (sweet spot) cancel the rear energy waves emitted by bass units and complete the first reflection, and thus eliminate potential standing waves. This is why the Gradient Revolution without problems functioning in very small rooms, even smaller than 20 square meters. It will satisfy all fans standing loudspeakers that they had to give up because of the small auditorium. It would certainly not optimal either move away speakers at least one meter from the back wall, though, if it respects the previous recommendation regarding the accommodation or less distance, as is my case (0.5 m) will not pose special problems. In such circumstances, the Revolution may not only develop their full potential in presenting a sound picture, but neither she nor the other important parameters playback will not be significantly degraded, thanks to an extremely controlled dispensing sound. The optimal distance between the speakers should be sought in a range between 2 and 3 meters, and suggest and gently rotate the listening position with respect to the said rules of the equilateral triangle. Further fine-tune the bass response and eliminate any standing waves is possible rotation and pivoting the bass section in one of three positions. Three-sided design open-baffle bass section that perfectly matches the bottom of the cabinet treble / midrange unit allows such combinations.

 

 

Figure 6. - It is recommended positioning Gradient Revolution Speaker in space

 

The starting position is that the stage with coaxial treble / midrange unit (frontal radiation of all units in the same direction), and the other two are with phase lag bass section of 120 degrees in relation to it. These options are useful and recommended them to play when the speakers are very close to the back wall or other obstacles, and the correct polarity in such situations between treble / midrange unit and bass section defines the direction of the merger (in phase or out of it) 2-pin connector the cable that interconnects them.

 

 

Figure 7 - Radiation diagrams transducers

 

 

Figure 8 - Options rotation bass section (double arrows show the direction of radiation dipole bass section, while single shows the direction of the radiation frequencies above 200 Hz)

 

New bass units with air coils of copper wire significantly larger in diameter than the previous version of the speakers have increased their sensitivity by 1 dB, and it is for the new Revolution declared the 87 dB (2.83 V / 1 m). However, it is in practice realistically lower the decibel as confirming certain measurements. Apart from the aforementioned coil novelty and new polypropylene capacitors of the highest quality, and all the other elements are the highest turnouts audio standards. In addition to these changes and improve design is fundamentally not changed. Frequency Response declared covers an area of ​​50 Hz to 20 kHz (+/- 2 dB) with a decrease of -6 dB at 30 Hz for who would say that it is even lower in real terms. The sections between the transducers are at 2800 Hz and 200 Hz (third and fourth rows). The nominal impedance is 6 ohms, with a minimum 5 ohms at around 50 Hz. Speaker dimensions are 410 x 1020 x 360 mm (W x H x D) and weight 24 kg / pc. They are available in black or cherry finish wooden parts with black protective foil that covers most of the surface of the speaker. What always surprises me and what I have to mention the reactions to the appearance of the speakers. The Revolution looks much better in person than in pictures. That I would say timeless design has a very high WAF (Woman Acceptance Factor). Although I can not for themselves declare that I am not much of a esthete, reviews of all who have seen them live with me, including the ladies, almost by consensus positive and confirm the previously presented observations about their design.

 

SOUND STEP FORWARD

After a period of initial burn in for that in my estimate, took more than 200 hours, and in which I have extensively used the "burn-in" materials, the speakers are still some time slightly changed the sound of improving their performance. After approx. 3 months the process is completed and the new Revolution showed his trump card. All written in the first review is absolutely true, as unquestionable and certain, very specific improvements over the previous version of these speakers. In particular this applies to the bass response that is now, not drastically, but something deeper. It is not about someone extraordinary deep bass (somewhere between 30 Hz and 40 Hz in real terms), or its quantity (volume, mass), indeed, but primarily quality (excellent control, timbre and resolution). I'll take the example of outstanding Dynaudio Contour S1.4 monitors whose bass (declared) down to 41 Hz (+/- 3 dB) and that in relation to the Gradient Revolution sounds more voluminous and "meaty", and ultimately more attractive. However, Revolutionov bass is more precise, more accurate and more natural, and actually richer in terms of structure. In making this comparison, it is important to mention that Contour S1.4 because of its characteristics but also the organization (bass-reflex), for optimal performance require a room of at least 25 square meters and accommodation in free space, at least a meter away from the first obstacle, as opposed to the Revolution . So, here specifically in practice has shown that the monitor (some call them "bookshelf") speakers, especially those larger volume and bass extension, does not represent "a priori" better choice for smaller rooms. Especially not compared to stand-alone Gradiente.

Improvements have occurred in the field of macro dynamics (in addition to the earlier of the great micro-dynamics) and resolution. Should emphasize the sound image from which the speakers are physically disappeared, and that is attracted by its perseverance and realistic three-dimensional projection without the smallest trunk artificial exaggeration of some dimension or performers from the already abundant, but organically woven holographic structure. It was all right in their place, just as arranged how it should be, without any attractive isforsiranih artificijalnih supplements that do not exist in the music structure of a live performance in real space. These characteristics are also a result of his expert organization and structure of these speakers, practically almost insensitive to the acoustics of the room. Overall, all the recognizable characteristics predecessors are now raised a step higher, and dosadešnjem highlight text and parameters for two. Therefore, modifications made in this, the fifth version of (the fourth after the original version) model Revolution, fully justifying its application.

 

 

MINIMAL IMPACT spatial acoustics

The moment has come, and to come back to the story of room acoustics. Complete theory confirmed in practice and in extreme conditions. Due to the highly focused radiation and skillfully solved the problems of the first reflections that are almost completely annulled, Gradient Revolution have proved to be remarkably little sensitive speakers on the acoustic characteristics of the room. Now it has become clear, as I mentioned earlier, that with any one speaker after moving to a new room (turned out to be very ungrateful acoustic predisposition) I was not satisfied just because she could not achieve the optimal, and sometimes even a satisfactory interaction between speaker system - the rooms. Until he arrived Revolution. Even more so is their location in the room very unfavorable, I would even say extreme (extremely narrowed and pre-determined position with minimal possibilities of correction, 0.5 m distance from the rear wall, near the piano, etc.). In contrast to other speakers, in these conditions, with an open-baffle bass structured and frontally oriented in all other directions maximum radiation attenuated midrange and tweeters, Revolution showed their superiority and really minimal sensitivity to acoustic characteristics of space, without having yet were not exhausted all of his set-up possibilities (rotate the bass section, active crossovers, etc.). In fact it is about the superiority of the entire structure, and especially the open-baffle structure (the always kritičnome bass area) of the speaker cabinets with structures, which no matter how "perfect" they can not eliminate resonance and coloration, which adversely affect the sound. That the solution without cabinet speakers confirmed and later experience with fully open-baffle structured Jamo Reference R909. After these experiences, I often knew to ask: how is it that the market is not available over open-baffle speakers? This does not mean that the acoustics of the room can not be addressed, nor to mention open-baffle speakers do not work better in optimal acoustic conditions and positions, on the contrary, however, when these aspects (emphasis added) unfavorable come together to highlight their comparative advantages.

The obtained result is extremely neutral character of the sound, the real circumstances one can freely say perfectly linear across the entire frequency spectrum. Absence of previously very audible resonance pianos located in the same room. Not that they completely annulled, but to the extent suppressed that they can be heard only when the head rests on the body of the piano, therefore nowhere near sweet-spot. After a subsequent hearing and socializing with other Gradient models (Revolution Active and Helsinki) in different rooms and systems, I can say that it is a recognized neutral character and timbralno natural reproduction, which are so close to live performances in the hall, a truly minimally sensitive to characteristics spatial acoustics, which is unfailingly commit to memory so that they are in that no problem is detected and the blind test. Sound Revolution many love to compare with the legendary Quad ESL-63 model. In this comparison is not without base indicates the fact that the Gradient products subwoofer SW-63 is designed precisely these quad speakers, and thus uniform cooperation with the original company Quad in the time while she was led by the legendary founder Peter Walker. The Gradient is the only company ever to something constructed and produced for the original Quad. When already mention Quad, bearing in mind the dipole radiation pattern Gradient Revolution bass sections, shape of eight, which is a characteristic of panel speakers, it should be noted that despite a very directed and controlled ventilation (through the complete frequency range), Revolution still has a noticeably larger sweet-spot ie. not happen the situation that it can seriously listen to only one person. Dynamic they also showed some convincing, especially in active variants.

 

Games with amplifier

Given the very demanding bass section open-baffle structure with two large 30-cm level dugohodne bass units and a lower efficiency, it is necessary to start the Revolution is good quality, strong and rich stock of current amplifier. In addition, and possibly more open character of the sound because I have not yet encountered the amplifier that revolution out of line of neutrality and forced them to play (too) bright, sharp and aggressive, while their amps sound darker character does not match. It's no secret that the Gradient has a long cooperation with the Danish company GamuT (made active crossover Revolution Active), and in its development labs and lecture hall using just their amplification. This mainly refers to the D200 amplifier which proved to be an excellent "match" for the Revolution, especially for the bass section. So are my thoughts on the selection of adequate amplification, but the initial purchase decision Revolution, was moving in that direction. Friend with the start of this test, as well as domestic Gradient distributors, which in its distributing program also possesses gamut, also suggested and simplify decision-making. So the Revolution for partners get the aforementioned combination GamuT D3 and D200 MkIII preamplifier power amplifiers which proved to be a full hit. Speakers are from the amplification kombinacijomna fully able to develop their potential, particularly in the area of ​​control, dynamics, resolution and sound image. Besides gamut amplification Revolution have an excellent partner and showed some other amplifiers, such as. Bryston 4B SST stereo output and NuForce Reference 9 SE mono-blocks. Due to the generally favorable characteristics of the upper part of the speaker with a coaxial treble / midrange unit and open bi-amp / bi-wire terminal options on the bottom of the base speaker will often meet the recommendations of the tube power amplifier, which would be responsible for the launch of this part. But I personally have the best results nevertheless performed with transistor amplifiers (mentioned Gamut D200 MkIII), which is in my case proved to be a better choice, especially in terms of resolution and sound character, which does not mean that in other circumstances, what racial tube amplifier would not achieve the desired or even greater synergy.

 

 

Figure 10 - Bi-Amp / Bi-Wire connectors on the underside of the base bass section

 

To conclude the story of the Gradient Revolution speakers will make it one to point out that it is extremely neutral and timbralno natural character of the sound, linear throughout the entire frequency range, excellent resolution and realistic sound image with rich organic structure. These speakers simply play music it as it is in its essence and in the area where it occurred, without any artificial beauty and without dissecting the bare technical audio information, and shall therefore especially appreciate regular visitors halls that play neamplificirana music. As a lover of classical music and a frequent visitor of live performances can say that these are speakers who are most loyal took this musical experience and the atmosphere of the hall to my living room like no one before them, which is why I became their proud owner.

 

 

GRADIENT REVOLUTION ACTIVE

As time went on, looking at the speakers in absolute terms, however, I became aware of their two main limits. The first concerned the macro dynamics and large dynamic rectify what often appear in symphonic scores in classical music as well as any individual standing speakers convincingly reproduce (in optimal acoustic conditions), while the second related to the reproduction of the lowest bass, and the last octave, which is normally the privilege of only the best high-end speakers (and system). To avoid any misunderstanding, I must stress once again that those limits mentioned in absolute terms, that is, in relation to all speakers, regardless of which price range and category belonged. No Gradient and it offers a solution, therefore, is the logical next step was to move to Revolution Active.

 

 

Figure 11 - Gradient Revolution Active with active crossover

 

Gradient Revolution Active speakers can be as ready-made with corresponding active crossover factory to order, but it is also every Revolution model can be upgraded in the Active version. In this case, with the implementation of active crossover in the system, and between the preamplifier and power amplifier (now bi-amping unconditional), and need to make certain changes in the standby switch part. Although these procedures are not particularly demanding and their most difficult part is actually removing and reinstalling the protective mesh, though they recommend entrust authorized service, which I did. Passive crossover designed for bass section completely turns off (L4 = 10 mH / 2.2 Ohm; L5 = L2; C5 = 300 μF) and bass units are now directly connected to the output amplifier which ensures maximum control excursion cone bass unit. On the other hand, in the crossover midrange necessary to bridge resistors R1 (1.5 ohms) and R 2 (4.7 ohms), and capacitor C3 (80 μF), from the circuit to eliminate the coil L 2 (3 H / 1 Ohm) and a capacitor C1 (2.2 μF) be replaced with others of different value (3.3 μF). This achieves a natural decline in midrange unit that has previously been defined passive crossover, and now it according to the bass section defines active crossover.

 

 

Figure 12 - The interior of the lower part of the open-baffle bass section

 

 

Figure 13 - Passive crossover bass section

 

 

Figure 14 - coaxial midrange-tweeter unit with passive crossover

 

 

Figure 15 - Coaxial Seas units with associated cabinet

 

 

Figure 16 - Final return of protective nets

 

Thus, the increased overall efficiency coaxial treble / midrange unit. The transition between the tweeter and midrange remained unchanged and in turn determined by passive crossover (C2 = 8.2 μF; C4 = 6.8 μF; L1 = 0.3 mH / 0.3 Ohms; L3 = 1.2 mH / 0.7 Ohms; Rp = 22 Ohms). Replacement capacitors, manufacturer supplied with an active crossover and detailed instructions. After this intervention significantly reduced the number of passive components crossover which generally has a positive effect on sound quality because sensitive audio signal must now go to the transducers shorter path through the significantly smaller number of elements.

 

 

Figure 17 - The spikes on the top panel to the bass section that sets the cabinet with a coaxial Seas unit

 

Since the Active variant Revolution plays a very low frequency, it is necessary to pay attention to all of the bolts on the structure to be tightened in order to prevent undesirable resonance and speakers certainly set the spikes. Is this task properly worked out can be checked by a test drive with recorded test frequencies in the bass area. This recommendation applies to passive Revolution.

 

 

Figure 18 - Scheme Gradient Revolution crossover

 

 

Figure 19 - Scheme passive switch part Gradient Revolution Active speakers

 

As mentioned above, the active component is a linear shunt placed after the preamplifier, and an electronic signal is divided and ekvilizira in area of ​​about 200 Hz to the one that goes to the upper part of the speaker with treble / midrange unit and the part that goes into the bass section. This requires bi-amping configuration with at least two stereo power amplifiers, four mono-block or combined setup with eg. Mono-blocks for the bass section and a stereo output for the remaining part. Active crossover is equipped with balanced (XLR) and unbalanced (RCA) inputs and outputs so that the possible implementation in different combinations of amplification. If that other devices allow, I certainly recommend a balanced connection for 6 dB gain signal in the router, but also because of other benefits such connectivity devices. Input impedance is 40 kOhm in blanched and 20 kOhm in unbalanced mode, while the output impedance of 150 ohms for balanced or unbalanced 75 ohm for the mod. What is the active control is concerned, the most important to note selector Q parameters and a potentiometer for volume level bass sections. Q parameter it is possible to choose between three options. Position HIGH enables the frequency response in the lower extreme to 20Hz with a drop of -3 dB, MEDIUM position in turn gives a decrease of -6 dB at the same frequency, and LOW mean attenuation of - 10 dB at 20 Hz. In this way can be finely tuned bass lowering with respect to the spatial acoustics characteristics, and the characteristics of the rest of the system, and thus affect its speed and focus. The optimum balance of the sound in relation to the rest of the spectrum, and the characteristics of spatial acoustics and personal taste is adjusted using BASS LEVEL potentiometer to determine the level of its volume. This control operates in the range of -10 to +10 dB. Doing it in the bi-amping system power amplifiers with different gaina, this function also allows their harmonization. In addition to these controls is available and, if necessary, stereo / mono switch. All connectors and controls are located on the back of the switch, and there are also the main power switches and three-pin power input connector for receiving euro power cord. The front panel is completely clean and is only engraved logo and bluish LED that indicates that the shunt is in operation. Already on external detailing is easy to conclude that the Gradient making the crossover to his own specifications entrusted companies gamut, which they wanted to be sure that that part of the active electronics speakers will be made according to the highest of high-end standards. So they used electronic components and other parts of the highest audiophile standards that are carefully selected after multiple measurement and hearing tests (such as selected Burr-Brown operational amplifiers), power supply section is physically separated from the rest of the electronics conducting sensitive audio line signal, the casing is designed to does not allow any external or internal electromagnetic (EM) and radio frequency (RF) interference and influence, and so on. Upon completion, after measurement and quality control, as well as all other Gradient products, passes to a detailed and rigorous final hearing test. It's worth mentioning and that all Gradient speakers manually, and fully produced in Finland, but active crossover which, as I have already stated, in Denmark products gamut. In the end technical descriptions mention active crossover and its dimensions of 430 x 108 x 390 mm (W x H x D), and a mass of 9.6 kg. With its brushed aluminum finish, identical gamut components, additionally will cheer those who will implement it in the system with amplification that the Danish producers because it will be achieved and perfect visual synergy.

 

 

Figure 20 - Bass response depending on the selected parameter Q active crossover

 

 

Figure 21 - The controls and interface active crossover

 

TRUE FULL-RANGE EXPERIENCE

After burn in active crossover and new elements in passive crossover speakers, which this time was significantly shorter, the sound took on a whole new dimension. It is not at all doubtful that until now described characteristics retained, but what you give to the Revolution Active version, can be described as a complete full-range speaker system of high-end class. Of the two mentioned limits Passive Revolution variants, first, dynamics, in all its aspects has improved considerably (Johann Strauss: Die Fledermaus, Carlos Kleiber, Bayerisches Staatsopernchor & Staatsorchester, Deutsche Grammophon 457765-2). Partly this merit and complete elimination of other limiting factors, and that was something less frequency response in the bass area. He is now practically down "to the bottom", to lower the threshold of hearing of the human hearing aids and speakers output 20 Hz (with attenuation in the range of -3, -6 or -10 dB depending on the selected parameter Q), ie. Complete ler's lower octave , placing them in the category of true full-range speakers. Letting the test tones, it should be noted that with considerable attenuation though still quite clearly reproduce the lower frequency of 20 Hz. Therefore, the reproduction organs on these speakers literally magic with complete fundamentals, timbre and body, without loss and one note (Mattias Wager - Organ Treasures, OPUS3 SACD 22031; Camille Saint-Saens: Symphony No.3, Christoph Eschenbach, The Philadelphia Orchestra , Ondine ODE 1094-5; Richard Strauss: Also Sprach Zarathustra, Andre Previn, Wiener Philharmoniker, Telarc CD-80167). For a unique experience when it comes to speakers. In doing so, the frequency response of the bass area is extremely linear, with a shallow dive depending on the selected parameter Q, which due to the previously described structural solutions, omits the usual uplift of certain bass frequencies and the occurrence of standing waves. The result is precise, clear, focused, excellent defined and rhythmically precise, while deep bass. Respecting the proper positioning, based on an equilateral triangle with the distance from the rear wall speakers equal distance from your listening from the wall behind him, despite playing a band even below 20 Hz, standing waves in the sweet-spot does not appear. Checked!

However this is not the deepest bass only gain. How am regular visitor of classical music concerts, mostly in Zagreb Concert Hall Lisinski, I've always been particularly impressed so unique, specific and subtle staccato tones of the double bass. Most systems without problems reproducing these tones that do not even belong to the category deepest because it usually ranges from about 50 Hz to 100 Hz. But problems arise with timbralnom fidelity and structure of playing these tones occurring strokes bows on the strings, the largest string instrument with a huge resonant wooden body.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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MONITES

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